Completed Sustainable Development Projects

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DDRI: Power for All? The Historical Geography of Electric Utilities in Eastern North Carolina

Conor Harrison and Scott Kirsch (Faculty Advisor). Some people in eastern North Carolina are currently experiencing electricity rates nearly twice as high as those in the rest of the state. This project seeks to understand the historical and geographic …

A National Survey of Jobs Associated with The Restoration Economy

Todd BenDor and Bill Lester–Co-PIs. Environmental protection has long been seen as a threat to thriving businesses and robust employment numbers. But the assumption that environmental regulations stifle the economy ignores the economic output and emplo …

Understanding and Exploring the Restoration Economy

Todd BenDor–PI. The notion that what is good for the environment is not good for business is widely accepted by the American media. What has been almost entirely missing from the public debate is a detailed accounting of the jobs that would actually be …

One Movement or Two? Moral Logics and Food Action Networks in the Alternative Agrifoods Movement

Don Nonini and Dorothy (Dottie) Holland–Co-PIs. In a multi-sited ethnographic study of local food activism in four regions of North Carolina, the researchers found there are major differences between food security and sustainable agriculture activisms, …

Hazard Mitigation Planning Initiative II

David Brower and Todd Owen–Co-PIs. Risk assessment is a critical part of a community’s hazard mitigation planning process for at least two reasons: 1) it provides vital information to the local jurisdiction to enable them to prepare more robust local m …

Ecosystem Services as an Alternative Foundation for Development, Urban Planning, and New Water Infrastructure in the U.S.

Todd BenDor–PI. This project will bring traditionally disparate disciplines (engineering, ecology, planning, economics, law, and policy) together to participate in three working groups that will build upon each other over the two years of the grant, mo …

Developing an Intergovernmental Management Framework for Sustainable Recovery Following Catastrophic Disasters

Yan Song–PI.  This research, funded by the National Science Foundation, will use the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake—which affected 46 million people in western China, caused over 88,000 deaths, and paralyzed the economy of a large part of Sichuan province—as …

Away from Home and Out of School: Adolescent Physical Activity (PA) and Body Mass Index (BMI)

Daniel Rodriguez and Kelly Evenson–Co-PIs. Higher weights in children have increased significantly over the past 20 years, while sedentary behaviors have concurrently increased. By limiting the opportunities for being physically active in every day lif …

Linking Econometric Models with Chesapeake Bay Models and Coordinating to Support the Maryland State Development Plan

Nikhil Kaza—PI. In May 2007 the National Center for Smart Growth at the University of Maryland received a grant from the EPA’s Collaborative Science and Technology Network for Sustainability entitled:  “Reality Check Plus—Envisioning a Sustainable Mary …

Appalachia/Southeastern Regional Water Quality Assistance Network
Jeffrey Hughes–PI. The Environmental Finance Center for Region 4 (EFC), the Southeast Watershed Forum (SEWF), the Southeast Stormwater Association (SESWA), the Stormwater Engineering Group and Stream Restoration Institute (NCSU), along with Auburn University (Alabama) propose to work with other local and state organizations to build a Regional Water Quality Assistance Network to help local watershed organizations and communities protect, maintain, and restore water quality in a ten-state region. The principal coordinating partners are nationally recognized in their fields and have years of experience in providing assistance to organizations and communities. The team offers a unique blend of expertise in innovative financing, training, facilitation, outreach/education, and applied research. Local and state partners will include academic institutions, county and municipal governments, regional planning and development councils, the Appalachian Regional Commission, Sea Grant, NEMO (Nonpoint Education for Municipal Officials), Growth Readiness trainers, and other best-practice resources. National partners, such as the Smart Growth Leadership Institute will provide specialized assistance on an as-needed basis. The primary functions of this Network will include: 1) providing watershed organizations with practical tools, (such as model ordinances and public process facilitation) and 2) equipping these groups with sustainable finance mechanisms to support watershed protection efforts.

An Analysis of Urbanization and Hazard Mitigation Practices near Hazardous Liquid Transmission Pipelines – EPA Star Fellowship
Daniel Rodriguez & Anna Osland–Co-PIs. In the last decade, the demand for natural gas, petroleum and other hazardous liquids has increased. The preferred means to transport
these products are transmission pipelines. Most transmission pipelines were originally placed in rural areas with low population density. However, recent urbanization has placed many human population centers and sensitive environmental areas at risk for pipeline disasters. This project, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, will assess the following topics: land use near transmission pipelines, local planning to mitigate hazards, and risk reduction for low income and minority populations.

Academic Workshop Follow-up: Research to Promote a Sustainable Southeast
Philip Berke-PI. This project specifies the objectives and tasks to do the following: 1) develop a research and engagement framework aimed at development and application of forecasts, impact assessments, and plans for guiding eastern North Carolina toward a sustainable future, and 2) conduct an assessment of agriculture incentive programs available to private landowners and to learn of their perspectives to participate in such programs. This research will specifically address needs identified by the Southeast Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS) Academic Workshop held in Spring 2007. The project will be carried out by researchers from North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and will take place in FY08 and FY09. It will be incrementally funded by objectives as directed by the Department of Defense.

Integrating Economic Plan, Land-Use Plan, Urban Plan and Transportation Plan for Chinese Cities
Yan Song-PI. In this era of rapid urbanization, smart growth and a more integrated approach to planning is needed for Chinese cities. This project evaluated China’s current—and disconnected–planning system. The result of the project is an integrated and comprehensive planning system for Chinese cities in which economic, land-use, urban, and transportation planning work together as interconnected and interdependent systems for the common good.

Disaster Preparedness Demonstration Project
Philip Berke–PI. Many factors help to explain why disadvantaged groups bear a disproportionate share of the impacts of natural disasters, such as differences in risk perception among diverse population groups and gaps in risk preparedness information and dissemination. MDC and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ’s Center for Urban and Regional Studies (CURS) created an emergency preparedness demonstration program founded on strong, comprehensive field research and guiding principles learned through the practice of community development to better prepare disadvantaged groups and the nation as a whole for future disasters. Working with FEMA, the integrative approach contains five distinct, but interconnected phases including field research, community-based reflection, implementation of a demonstration program (selected sites), demonstration program evaluation, and final reporting and briefing. The research goal is to develop a model emergency preparedness program for disadvantaged groups nationwide.

The Effects of New Urban Developments Compared to Conventional Low-Density Developments on Natural Hazard Mitigation
Philip Berke–PI. This study, funded by the National Science Foundation, compared hazard mitigation practices used by New Urban developments as a compact urban form to what happens in disasters to conventional low-density developments. The study contains four objectives: 1. Identify New Urban development projects that are located in hazard prone areas in the U.S. along with a control group of conventional low-density development projects; 2. Determine the extent to which hazard mitigation practices are integrated into site designs for New Urban developments compared to conventional developments; 3. Evaluate the influence of New Urban design, relative to the influence of local mitigation plans and implementation programs on integration of natural hazard mitigation practices into developments; 4. Draw implications from this proposed research for improving the disaster resilience of New Urban development projects by adjusting site designs, mitigation elements of local plans, and local implementation programs.

Activate Martinsville/Henry County
Emil Malizia–PI. Activate Martinsville/Henry County will improve the health and economic vitality of the Martinsville/Henry County region by encouraging and enabling residents and visitors alike to enjoy a more active lifestyle. The program will stimulate changes to the physical environment and regional cultural norms so that more people of all ages will walk and bicycle as part of their daily routines. These changes will enhance Henry County’s attractiveness as a business location and as a destination for environmentally sustainable tourism and development. Over the course of thethree-year project, Activate Martinsville/Henry County will be the catalyst for creating a measurably healthier, safer, and more active populace and community.

Hazard Mitigation Planning Initiative
David Brower and Todd Owen–Co-PIs. The overarching purpose of this projec, funded by the North Carolina Department of Emergency Management, is to help communities comply with state and federal hazard mitigation planning requirements, with a focus on those areas that many communities struggled with in their initial plans, especially risk assessment. The project is also designed to gather the information and feedback needed to provide high-quality technical assistance to those developing local hazard mitigation plans. Information will also be obtained on attitudes towards and barriers to developing multi-jurisdictional regional plans. This effort will lay the groundwork for future efforts that will guide communities to develop plans that can be easily incorporated into regional and state plans; improve the quality of local plans both in terms of meeting FEMA criteria and ease of implementation; and increase the number of local plans that develop strategies and actions in a regional/river basin context.

Mitigation Offer Study
James Fraser-PI.The purpose of this research proposal, funded by the Federal Emergency Management Agency by way of the URS Corporation, is to conduct a national study that focuses on the process of conducting mitigation offers as well as an evaluation of outcomes of these programs. Therefore, we will focus on examining the structure of buyout programs and their impact on individual decision-making. The guiding questions include: 1) Why do these programs work so well in some communities but not in others? 2) What is the relationship between a program’s structure and individual decision- making? 3) What are the main reasons why some people do not accept mitigation offers? In order to examine these issues, a sample of five communities that have participated in mitigation efforts will be studied. Data collection strategies will include face to face and telephone surveys with a representative set of community households, in-depth interviews with key informants in each community, and focus groups comprised of neighborhood residents. Our reports will provide URS and FEMA with useful information to assist households that have experienced a natural disaster.

Urban Containment Programs & The Vulnerability of Infrastructure to Hazards: Are Cities being Engineered to be Safe as well as Smart?
PI-Raymond Burby, Funded by the National Science Foundation. This research will contribute to improved understanding of factors that affect the vulnerability of urban development and related civil infrastructure systems to natural hazards. The implications of the study findings for engineering urban growth will help to ensure that “smart growth” now being advocated widely is also “safe growth.” The development of engineering standards for the built environment and planning standards for contained urban growth will be explored through a workshop for representatives of federal agencies, industry trade associations, and engineering and planning professional associations.

Relocation and Decision Making Processes of Natural Disaster Victims
PI-James Fraser, Funded by the National Science Foundation. The purpose of this study is to examine the decision-making considerations of flood victims when deciding either to remain in or relocate outside of the floodplain by testing the two perspectives relevant to decision-making; rational choice theory and symbolic interactionism. Rational choice theory contends that individuals are largely driven toward economic ends, and that their decision-making as well as behavior is a result of cost-benefit considerations (Coleman 1990). Symbolic interactionism frames decision-making as the result of the meanings individuals attach to differing lines of action. For interactionists these meanings are derived from the social interaction individuals have with their significant others, and these meanings are not necessarily based on economic rationality (Cooley 1902; Mead 1934; Rosenberg 1979). In order to examine decision-making of natural disaster victims this study uses telephone interviews of a representative sample of buyout participants and non-participants. The survey sections include questions on cost-benefit considerations, the social networks individuals have in the community, and demographics. Logistic regression is employed to test the explanatory power of economic versus social antecedents to deciding whether or not to participate in a home buyout.

The Impact of “Smart Codes” on Building Rehabilitation
Co-PIs-David Salvesen & Ray Burby, Funded by the Fannie Mae Foundation. Building regulations have been relied upon to protect the public from the hazards of substandard building materials and slipshod construction techniques. For new construction, complying with building code requirements is rather straightforward, but for rehabilitation projects, the process is much less certain. Even simple upgrades can trigger requirements to bring an entire building up to code. Given such uncertainty, building owners and developers shy away from renovations. As a result, vintage buildings in need of renovation often go begging. Rather than upgrade their buildings, many owners simply allow them to deteriorate or they abandon them altogether, saddling older neighborhoods and commercial areas with run-down, dilapidated structures. In 1998, New Jersey adopted a new rehabilitation code as a way to stimulate redevelopment of its older buildings. The new code sets common sense standards for rehabilitation projects. Maryland adopted a similar code in 2000. The purpose of this project is to examine the impact of New Jersey’s and Maryland’s smart codes on the number of rehabilitation projects undertaken, and on the dollar value of investment in such projects, in those states.

North Carolina Smart Growth Training Program
PI-David Salvesen, Funded by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. Smart growth calls for integrating land uses, protecting open space, investing in existing communities, and expanding the range of options of where people live, work, shop and how they get around. But how, exactly, can the goals of smart growth be achieved? Several obstacles persist. For example, many local planners, developers, elected officials and lenders are unsure of how to translate smart growth principles into practice. Specifically, they are unfamiliar or uncomfortable with many of the tools and techniques needed to change our development patterns , i.e., to grow smarter. Moreover, in many communities in North Carolina, current zoning codes do not allow compact or mixed-use projects. In addition, lenders are reluctant to fund projects for which they have no experience, such as projects that pro vide a mix of housing types or that combine residential and commercial uses. The purpose of this project is to develop and implement a smart growth training program that will provide local planners, elected officials, developers, realtors, lenders and others with the knowledge, understanding and tools necessary to promote smart growth in their communities.

The Importance of Quality of Life in the Location Decisions of Firms in the New Economy
PI-David Salvesen, Funded by the NC Dept. of Commerce. Traditionally, the location decisions of firms have be en driven primarily by factors such as land costs, labor costs and access to materials and markets. Today, however, quality of life for employees is becoming an important factor as well, particularly for knowledge-based industries such as telecommunications, computers, entertainment, and biotechnology that are part of the so-called New Economy. Anecdotal evidence suggests that an increasing number of firms are seeking locations that will attract, and retain, a well-educated workforce. Thus, areas offering cultural and recreational amenities (e.g., restaurants, theaters, bike trails) could have a competitive advantage over places that do not. Unfortunately, there have been few empirical studies examining the relative importance of quality of life in the location decisions of firms. The proposed study will analyze the links between business location decisions and quality of life. We propose to conduct a telephone survey of businesses that have located in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina in the last three years. Our analysis will have enormous practical value for real estate investors, policy makers and economic development practitioners.

Development of College Course: New Directions in Hazard Mitigation: Breaking the Disaster Cycle
PI-David Godschalk, Funded by the NC Dept. of Crime Control & Public Safety, Division of Emergency Management. The goal of this two-year project is to prepare a 48-hour; three-credit graduate level college course entitled New Directions in Hazard Mitigation: Breaking the Disaster Cycle for use in universities that teach planning and public administration. The course is to be prepared under a Memorandum of Agreement with the North Carolina Department of Crime Control and Public Safety, Division of Emergency Management; Federal Emergency Management Agency; and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Center for Urban and Regional Studies. The course will be developed within the philosophical context of “building disaster resilient communities,” which emphasizes disaster prevention, mitigation, and vulnerability reduction, and will seek balance between the “technocratic” and the “social vulnerability” approaches to emergency management.

Planning Under a Cooperative Mandate
PI-Philip Berke, Funded by Waikato University, This project involves an evaluation of New Zealand’s recent initiative to achieve sustainable resource management under the 1991 Resource Management Act (RMA). The evaluation will focus on the local regional planning efforts designed to translate goals into practice. This project represents the second and third year of a three-year study. The objectives to be achieved in the second year are: Objective 1: To evaluate the quality and consistency of local and regional plans produced under the act. Two tasks will be undertaken: a. Collect the comprehensive plans form all local and regional councils within New Zealand (73 plans). b. Content analyze all plans to assess their quality and consistency. Objective 2: To conduct a survey of local and regional councils in New Zealand to obtain data on the factors that are hypothesized to affect plan quality and consistency. Two tasks will be undertaken: a. To administer the survey to all local and regional councils. b. To evaluate the extent to which the factors obtained from survey data influence plan quality and consistency.

Water Quality and Quantity Impacts of Urban Form: A Comparative Analysis Compact and Low-Density Development
PI-Philip Berke, Funded by Water Resources Research Institute.The significance of this research is threefold: 1. To provide guidance to state and local planners and public officials on how land use planning and urban design can be used to maintain or restore watershed storage capacity for stormwater runoff. Protection of key open spaces in watersheds is needed for water storage, filtration, and groundwater recharge. Otherwise, downstream flood zones will expand as dramatically demonstrated in places like Tarboro and Princeville during the aftermath of Hurricane Floyd; 2. To provide guidance to state and local planners and public officials on how land use planning and urban design can be used as part of a comprehensive approach to reduce non-point pollution from stormwater runoff. Sole reliance on current BMP technologies will not achieve the 30% reduction goal for Nitrogen that is required by the Neuse River Watershed Management Plan and encouraged by other watershed management plans for major river basins in North Carolina; and 3. To identify how land use planning techniques (e.g., regulations, incentives, infrastructure investment programs, and land acquisition schemes), can be used to implement compact development designs in ways that mitigate stormwater runoff impacts. Objectives This proposed study consists of four objectives: 1. To critically examine the extent to which hydrologic and land use mitigation measures are integrated into the design of two prominent forms of compact developments – new urbanism and cluster development – based on a survey of development projects in four states (Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia). 2. To design prototype compact and low-density development scenarios for two demonstration sub-basins threatened by urbanization in the Piedmont region of North Carolina; 3. To compare the water quality and quantity impacts of compact development scenarios with conventional low-density development scenarios that would occur at build-out in two demonstration sub-basins. 4. To improve the awareness of water resource problems and solutions associated with alternative urban forms through the dissemination of findings.

The Impacts of Growth and Sprawl in North Carolina
PI-Mary Beth Powell, Funded by the NC Rural Economic Development Center. The 2000 census shows that North Carolina has grown rapidly since 1990, with the bulk of the growth occurring in the Triangle, Triad and Charlotte-Mecklenburg regions. For the most part, growth has brought prosperity: more job opportunities and higher personal income. But in many communities, rapid, uncontrolled growth often detracts from, rather than adds to, their quality of life. Our proposal calls for two main products: (1) an assessment of land use change in North Carolina over the last two decades and (2) a list of benchmarks or indicators that can be used to measure changes in the quality of life in North Carolina.

Building Capacity: The Next Step in North Carolina’s Smart Growth Agenda
PI-Mary Beth Powell, Funded by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. The overarching purpose of this project is to provide state, local and regional decision makers and citizens with the basic understanding and knowledge of “smart growth” concepts so they can more effectively participate in the ongoing debate on our state’s rapid, haphazard growth and the impact it will have on North Carolina’s environmental, social, and economic well-being. The project is a logical follow-up to the Z. Smith Reynolds-commissioned Brookings Institution report which recommended the creation of a University-led consortium to identify critical research voids and to provide an ongoing coordinating body to systematically build upon the past and current research conducted by academic institutions across the state. More importantly, the consortium will develop a future research agenda to provide critical information to elected officials who make and implement growth management policy in North Carolina. The consortium will be convened and supported through the Center for Urban and Regional Studies.The project also has an applied component which will demonstrate on a local level how research can be conducted and “repackaged” so that the average citizen can effectively utilize that information to increase their overall awareness of smart growth issues to affect change at both the community level and promote change in individual behaviors to foster a more sustainable society. Secondary data will be collected on 8-10 “quality of life” indicators will be used to develop a benchmarking system which will help the Research Triangle Region of North Carolina establish a system to measure the health or decline of the region over time.

Building Disaster Resilient Communities Course
PI-Raymond Burby, Funded by the University of New Orleans. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill would be assisting the University of New Orleans in a cooperative agreement with the National Emergency Management Training Center, Federal Emergency Management Agency to prepare the “Building Disaster Resilient Communities Course” for FEMA’s Higher Education Project.

Ecosystem Approaches to Management
Co-PIs-David Godschalk & Samuel Brody, Funded by the US EPA. Increasing development and the resulting decline of critical natural resources has created a need for improved environmental planning and management frameworks. I intend to focus my career goals on examining plans and policies which meet the needs of human communities while protecting the ecological and economic value of the natural resources on which they depend. Specifically, I hope to investigate resource issues which cross jurisdictional boundaries and involve the participation of multiple parties in creating management plans. In this sense, I will take an ecosystem approach to the long-term protection and management of critical resources. My geographic area of focus will be the coastal zone, where there is increasing conflict between conservation and development and an ever pressing need for the application of ecosystem management techniques.

Non-City Agency Grant Proposal
PI-Mary Beth Powell, Funded by the City of Durham. The purpose of this proposal is to improve the skill level of neighborhood residents in Southwest Central Durham through a combination of computer training classes and basic literacy course offerings. The Community Outreach Partnership Center, (COPC) a program of the Center for Urban and Regional Studies, will conduct GED and Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at its Storefront office on West Chapel Hill Street through a partnership with the Durham Literacy Council. It will also continue its job skill/job placement program, a computer training/apprenticeship venture with local computer companies such as SAS and IBM. The funds requested from this proposal will enable the computer instructors to be compensated for their time. It will also support course coordinators to improve recruitment and retention of students for the classes and to recruit volunteers, especially university students from Duke and UNC, to serve as instructors and as computer lab monitors enabling the COPC programs to be offered five to six days a week.

Public Participation in Planning & Local Government Involvement in Hazard Mitigation
PI-Raymond Burby, Funded by the National Science Foundation. Previous research indicates that current federal and state programs to foster hazard mitigation plans can result in what we term “calculated” commitment, which is extremely shallow and results in some but not much, subsequent adoption of mitigation measures. To be more effective in fostering hazard mitigation, higher-level governments need to build what we term “normative” commitment, which is characterized by local officials who realize that hazards are an important issue that requires local government attention and who allocate significant resources to deal with this problem. We propose to extend previous research by examining the following proposition: normative commitment requires not only a technically proficient hazard mitigation plan, but also an effective participatory planning process that involves stakeholders in evaluating vulnerability to hazards, formulating hazard-reduction goals, and deciding on policy recommendations. This process will form the foundation from which elected officials will develop commitment gap. In addition, we will look at the efficacy of various means of involving the public in planning, and of persuading local governments to expand planning processes to include greater public involvement. The research we propose will make significant contributions to both hazard mitigation policy and to understanding of local government policy processes related to natural hazards. Our research will provide evidence of the degree to which (and how) involving stakeholders more intimately can pay off in broader and more sustained commitment to hazard mitigation, and it will indicate the degree to which (and how) public involvement can be fostered through state and federal planning requirements. Our study will inform the debate in planning theory about the relative importance of what theorists term “communicative” rationality as a supplement to the “technical” rationality that traditionally has guided thinking about planning processes and the debate in the public policy literature about the benefits of state and federal mandates for public participation in policy making.

Implementing Smart Growth Practices in North Carolina: Putting Knowledge Into Action
PI-David Godschalk, Funded by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation. The project fulfills an urgent need to provide practical information to North Carolina communities and professionals that will improve their capabilities to accommodate growth in a more sustainable, livable pattern. This proposal is a completely reworked submission of a prior proposal, “A Best Practices Manual for Containing Sprawl in North Carolina Communities,” submitted in August 1998. This proposal responds to the comments of Z. Smith Reynolds reviewers and develops a more direct means of disseminating best practices information, one that grounds the potential application of Smart Growth practices in the actual experiences of North Carolina communities. This proposal will directly engage planners, developers, builders, transit officials, citizen groups, architects, policymakers and elected officials in a wide range of Smart Growth practices as applied to actual projects and community situations in North Carolina. To meet this objective an intensive interactive workshop program will be developed and carried out focused on practical tools and techniques for implementing Smart Growth in North Carolina communities. The budget request of $36,418 will be used to organize and conduct a series of workshops led by nationally recognized practitioners in their areas of expertise including: community visioning, the development and revision of land use planning codes, builder and developer Smart Growth practices, retail strategies for mixed-use development, community design competitions and charettes, sustainable indicators in community planning, and community initiated development. In contrast to conventional conference programs, the workshops will be designed as hands-on interactive sessions that will ground Smart Growth techniques in actual cases involving projects, neighborhoods and communities in North Carolina. Attendees will leave the workshops prepared to return to their communities and professions and implement the Smart Growth strategies and techniques used. The workshop model is based on the experience of North Carolina communities in the Charlotte metropolitan region where Smart Growth land use planning practices were introduced and spread through a combination of consultant-led work, university involvement, and networking amongst planners. The project tasks seek to replicate this model by bringing nationally-recognized practitioners to lead workshops addressing specific planning and development projects and situations in North Carolina communities, including: 1. Smart growth and the redevelopment of an urban core area 2. Smart growth and new development in a greenfield area 3. Planning, building and leasing town centers, main streets, and mixed-use development 4. Smart growth and local land use planning (revision, overlay, or redrafting of regulations) 5. Smart growth and station area planning for transit-oriented development 6. Overcoming challenges to builders and developers in compact development Each of these Smart Growth situations confront multiple towns, cities and counties located throughout North Carolina, yet only a small percentage of these communities possess the resources to access expertise in these areas. Prior versions of this proposal generated high levels of interest at the state, regional, and local levels of North Carolina including NC APA and eleven local and regional partners, providing a clear indication of the need for this type of project in North Carolina. The project managers for this project have extensive experience in land use planning, growth management and development practices and successfully orchestrated a spring symposium series on traditional urbanism for a similar group of clients involving more than a dozen speakers for ten public events in the spring of 1999. The applicants, communities and other partners who have been involved in developing this and previous versions of this proposal believe strongly that there has never been a more urgent time to illustrate and communicate best practices for Smart Growth in North Carolina’s communities, and to move proactively towards their dissemination and implementation amongst practitioners shaping future community growth patterns.

Public Involvement in Planning and Local Government Commitment to Hazard Mitigation
PI-David Godschalk, Funded by the Univ. of New Orleans. Previous research indicates that current federal and state programs to foster hazard mitigation plans can result in what we term “calculated” commitment, which is extremely shallow and results in some, but not much, subsequent adoption of mitigation measures. To be more effective in fostering hazard mitigation, higher-level governments need to build what we term “normative” commitment, which is characterized by local officials who realize that hazards are an important issue that requires local government attention and who allocate significant resources to deal with this problem. We propose to extend previous research by examining the following proposition: normative commitment requires not only a technically proficient hazard mitigation plan, but also an effective participatory planning process that involves stakeholders in evaluating vulnerability to hazards, formulating hazard-reduction goals, and deciding on policy recommendations. This process will form the foundation from which elected officials will develop commitment to mitigation. By testing this proposition, we will determine the extent to which public involvement requirements in state and federal programs that foster hazard mitigation planning and the resulting forms of public involvement are likely to be effective in helping to close the commitment gap. In addition, we will look at the efficacy of various means of involving the public in planning, and of persuading local governments to expand planning processes to include greater public involvement. The research we propose will make significant contributions to both hazard mitigation policy and to understanding of local government policy processes related to natural hazards. Our research will provide evidence of the degree to which (and how) involving stakeholders more intimately can pay off in broader and more sustained commitment to hazard mitigation, and it will indicate the degree to which (and how) public involvement can be fostered through state and federal planning requirements. Our study will inform the debate in planning theory about the relative importance of what theorists term “communicative” rationality as a supplement to the “technical” rationality that traditionally has guided thinking about planning processes and the debate in the public policy literature about the benefits of state and federal mandates for public participation in policy making.

Industrial Ecosystem Project
Co-PIs-Mary Beth Powell & Philip Berke, Funded by Triangle J COG. This project will demonstrate the value of specific tools and techniques in achieving local partnerships between businesses that will reduce the amount and cost of business waste and pollution within a six-county region in North Carolina. A regional council of local governments will coordinate a joint, community-based effort on the part of local governments, businesses. economic development professionals, university faculty and students. and the state pollution prevention office to document the value of business partnerships in achieving maximum resource and energy efficiency in the region. The project team will convene individual and group meetings of business representatives, plus conduct site visits where appropriate, in order to assist businesses in identifying materials, energy, and water inputs and outputs. This information will be entered into a database with Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping capability which will show the location of facilities using and releasing hundreds of types of materials, water, and energy. The project team will conduct further research that will allow it to evaluate potentially fruitful partnerships between businesses regarding cascade use of inputs, energy sharing. or joint treatment of outputs. The project team will then convene meetings between potential partners in order to obtain commitments to pursue further discussion toward specific undertakings. The GIS maps will be used by the project team in these meetings as well as by economic development officials in recruiting new enterprises to fill in missing links in potential partnerships. This eighteen- month project is Phase One of a two-phase project. A final report on the Phase One project will document the following the process of learning and partnership creation, the potential cost savings to facilities from specific potential partnerships that have been identified. and the potential pollution prevention effect of such partnerships. The report will also evaluate the long-term usefulness of the tools and techniques created by the project and the potential for financially sustaining the project over the long- term. A Phase Two project will implement symbiotic relationships and establish a permanent structure for continuing to identify and implement other such relationships. The requested amount of funding for the Phase One project is $177,888, with a S 11,296 match. for a total project cost of $192,184. The project would begin February I, 1997 and end July 31, 1998.

A Proposal to Formulate Alternative Mitigation Strategies Following Hurricane Fran
PI-David Brower, Funded by the NC Dept of Crime, Control and Public Safety, The damages caused in eastern North Carolina by Hurricane Fran consist of several different types, for example barrier islands, riverine flood plains, infrastructure (primarily water and waste water facilities, schools and transportation), -etc. Each of these types of damage will require a different mitigation strategy. The purpose of this project is to assemble a research team at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a multi- disciplinary group of experts who will identify and describe the types of damages caused by Hurricane Fran and then develop a series of mitigation strategies that could be used for each.

Coastal Hazards: Model Mitigation Project Proposal
PI-David Godschalk, Funded by the Dept. of the Environment, DEHNR. This project proposes to develop a model state coastal hazards mitigation program in North Carolina, based on three major initiatives, all of which were proposed by the 1997 Recommendations for Action report of the North Carolina Disaster Recovery Task Force: 1) Hazards Notification, to assess legislation which requires full disclosure and hazard notification to persons acquiring property on barrier islands, including full, accurate, and easily obtained information on the nature of hazards and related property restrictions prior to purchase. 2) Restriction of Public Subsidies, to assess legislation restricting future state subsidies and support of development in designated high hazard areas on barrier islands, including development of criteria for determining and designating high hazard areas within which restrictions would apply to state funded subsidies. 3) Hazards Area Acquisition, to assess the establishment of a state hazard area acquisition program, designed to acquire properties so that the owner of damaged or destroyed property has the option of selling and relocating versus rebuilding in the hazard area.

A Proposal to Prepare Teaching Materials for a College Course Entitled “Principles and Practice of Mitigating the Impacts of Natural Hazards”
PI-David Brower, Funded by the NC Dept of Crime, Control and Public Safety, The purpose of this work is to develop a 42 to 48 contact hour college classroom course on mitigating the impact of natural hazards. The final product will be a complete and ready-to use course which could be taught at four year accredited colleges and universities at the junior or senior level. The course will be developed so that it could be taught within an emergency management major, certificate or other degree program to students who may someday enter an emergency management related profession. The course will contain more lecture material than can be used in a standard 39 contact hour course in order to provide flexibility to the user.

Operationalizing Sustainable Development for Chapel Hill 111
PI-David Brower, Funded by the Town of Chapel Hill, In each of the last two years a group of students enrolled in a Planning Workshop has helped the Town of Chapel Hill think through sustainable development and how it might be operationalized. In both years the students worked with a small committee made up of Council Members, staff including the Planning Director, Town Manager, and citizens and presented a report to the Council at a public meeting. The Town has received the students work with enthusiasm. This year the Town would like the class to prepare specific policies and programs that the Town could use to implement selected principles of sustained development. This group will take the work done by the two previous classes, particularly the indicators developed, prioritize them and develop ways that these indicators can be used to guide how we grow and develop in Chapel Hill.