Neal Caren–PI. To understand social movements and the politics of the disadvantaged, one needs to understand social movement and political advocacy organizations (SMOs) and their media coverage. SMOs provide critical resources to seek social change, help to construct political identities and interests, allow challenges to survive hard times and provide sites for and spur civic engagement. Scholars agree that the attention of the mass news media is critical to challengers. Although movement scholars have generated important data on SMOs, until this project there has been no big empirical picture of any aspect of the rise, decline and persistence of SMOs across movements and over time. In this proposed renewal of NSF grants SES-1023863 and SES-0752571, we seek to update, expand and complete the collection of new data on articles in which national U.S. SMOs appear in newspapers. In previous NSF-funded research, the Political Organizations in the News (PONs) project collected the population of article mentions of more than 1,500 SMOs in four national newspapers – the New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times – across the twentieth century. This data set of approximately one million articles has been employed to address empirical questions and provide mappings regarding the most covered movements and SMOs in U.S. history; to test theories of movements and movement outcomes through fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses (fsQCA) and negative binomial regression analyses; to address why some organizations rather than others gained extensive coverage in the LGBT movement; and to address why an SMO received substantive coverage. As before, we plan to synthesize negative binomial regression analyses and formal qualitative methods, notably fsQCA. This set-based mode of analysis avoids technical problems multiple interactions cause for regression analyses, while retaining all relevant information and providing significance testing.