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Kenneth “Andy” Andrews–PI. The study examines two central questions in the study of protest and social movements: how movements emerge and how movements generate political victories. Despite significant progress of both the emergence and consequences of movements, many theoretical insights have not been tested in relation to one another, and most research designs have not been able to address complex causal arguments. The proposed study is innovative in that it tests major perspectives, focuses on social regulations (rather than collective benefits), examines threat alongside more established theories, examines a movement based on social control rather than the accretion of benefits and examines the spatial and temporal dynamics of political change. We develop these claims through an analysis of the legislative victories (‘dry’ laws) of the U.S. prohibition movement: one of the largest, longest running and most influential movements in American history