Kenneth “Andy” Andrews–PI. Why do some social movements succeed while others fail to bring about enduring social and political changes? This study examines the dynamics and consequences of local civil rights campaigns that challenged segregated public facilities in the U.S. South from 1960 to 1964. Many Southern cities experienced substantial desegregation of lunch counters, hotels, theaters and other establishments prior to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but these accomplishments were uneven across time and localities. By collecting systematic data on approximately 80 cities that experienced sustained civil rights activities in the early 1960s, we examine the impact of protest characteristics and movement organizations on desegregation. We also consider alternative explanations that focus on political opportunities (e.g., less resistance by whites) and the economic vulnerabilities of local businesses to the demands of protesters.