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Kenneth AndrewsPI. Why do some social movements succeed while others fail to bring about social and political changes? This enduring puzzle has gained considerable attention in recent years. Building on a large database and expertise on the civil rights movement, this research funded by the National Science Foundation, examines the dynamics and consequences of local campaigns to desegregate public facilities in the U.S. South from 1960 to 1964. Many Southern cities experienced substantial desegregation of lunch counters, hotels, theaters, and other establishments prior to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, but many others did not. Although the broader movement pursued a wide range of goals, desegregation campaigns had broad participation and faced massive resistance by white Southerners shaping the movement’s trajectory during this key period. This project has two primary goals: 1) To build a dataset documenting the desegregation campaigns in approximately seventy-five Southern cities between 1960 and 1964 and 2) to use this dataset to test and extend prevailing theories of social movement impact. The project will examine three leading theoretical perspectives on the consequences of social movements: Movement infrastructure, political mediation, and economic opportunity structure. Movement infrastructure arguments focus on the characteristics of organizations, leaders, and resources and the strategies, tactics, and frames that movements deploy as key determinants of movement impact; political mediation and opportunity arguments highlight a movement’s relationship to institutional politics including political cleavages and access to electoral politics and economic opportunity structure arguments focus on the vulnerabilities that businesses face to either conceding to or resisting the demands of protesters. For more information contact Professor Andrews at